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Android录音--AudioRecord、MediaRecorder (音频文件格式处理)

转自:http://www.cnblogs.com/Amandaliu/archive/2013/02/04/2891604.html

Android提供了两个API用于实现录音功能:android.media.AudioRecord、android.media.MediaRecorder。

    网上有很多谈论这两个类的资料。现在大致总结下:

1、AudioRecord

主要是实现边录边播(AudioRecord+AudioTrack)以及对音频的实时处理(如会说话的汤姆猫、语音)

优点:语音的实时处理,可以用代码实现各种音频的封装

缺点:输出是PCM语音数据,如果保存成音频文件,是不能够被播放器播放的,所以必须先写代码实现数据编码以及压缩

示例:

使用AudioRecord类录音,并实现WAV格式封装。录音20s,输出的音频文件大概为3.5M左右(已写测试代码)

2、MediaRecorder

已经集成了录音、编码、压缩等,支持少量的录音音频格式,大概有.aac(API = 16) .amr .3gp

优点:大部分以及集成,直接调用相关接口即可,代码量小

缺点:无法实时处理音频;输出的音频格式不是很多,例如没有输出mp3格式文件

示例:

使用MediaRecorder类录音,输出amr格式文件。录音20s,输出的音频文件大概为33K(已写测试代码)

3、音频格式比较

WAV格式:录音质量高,但是压缩率小,文件大

AAC格式:相对于mp3,AAC格式的音质更佳,文件更小;有损压缩;一般苹果或者Android SDK4.1.2(API 16)及以上版本支持播放

AMR格式:压缩比比较大,但相对其他的压缩格式质量比较差,多用于人声,通话录音

至于常用的mp3格式,使用MediaRecorder没有该视频格式输出。一些人的做法是使用AudioRecord录音,然后编码成wav格式,再转换成mp3格式

 

    再贴上一些测试工程。

功能描述:

1、点击“录音WAV文件”,开始录音。录音完成后,生成文件/sdcard/FinalAudio.wav

2、点击“录音AMR文件”,开始录音。录音完成后,生成文件/sdcard/FinalAudio.amr

3、点击“停止录音”,停止录音,并显示录音输出文件以及该文件大小。

 

大致代码如下:

1、AudioRecord录音,封装成WAV格式

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package com.example.audiorecordtest;
 
import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
 
import android.media.AudioFormat;
import android.media.AudioRecord;
 
public class AudioRecordFunc {
    // 缓冲区字节大小 
    private int bufferSizeInBytes = 0;
     
    //AudioName裸音频数据文件 ,麦克风
    private String AudioName = ""
     
    //NewAudioName可播放的音频文件 
    private String NewAudioName = "";
     
    private AudioRecord audioRecord; 
    private boolean isRecord = false;// 设置正在录制的状态 
     
     
    private static AudioRecordFunc mInstance;
          
    private AudioRecordFunc(){
         
    }  
     
    public synchronized static AudioRecordFunc getInstance()
    {
        if(mInstance == null)
            mInstance = new AudioRecordFunc();
        return mInstance;
    }
     
    public int startRecordAndFile() {
        //判断是否有外部存储设备sdcard
        if(AudioFileFunc.isSdcardExit())
        {
            if(isRecord)
            {
                return ErrorCode.E_STATE_RECODING;
            }
            else
            {
                if(audioRecord == null)
                    creatAudioRecord();
                 
                audioRecord.startRecording(); 
                // 让录制状态为true 
                isRecord = true
                // 开启音频文件写入线程 
                new Thread(new AudioRecordThread()).start(); 
                 
                return ErrorCode.SUCCESS;
            }
             
        }      
        else
        {
            return ErrorCode.E_NOSDCARD;           
        }      
 
    
   
    public void stopRecordAndFile() { 
        close(); 
    }
     
     
    public long getRecordFileSize(){
        return AudioFileFunc.getFileSize(NewAudioName);
    }
     
   
    private void close() { 
        if (audioRecord != null) { 
            System.out.println("stopRecord"); 
            isRecord = false;//停止文件写入 
            audioRecord.stop(); 
            audioRecord.release();//释放资源 
            audioRecord = null
        
    }
     
     
    private void creatAudioRecord() { 
        // 获取音频文件路径
        AudioName = AudioFileFunc.getRawFilePath();
        NewAudioName = AudioFileFunc.getWavFilePath();
         
        // 获得缓冲区字节大小 
        bufferSizeInBytes = AudioRecord.getMinBufferSize(AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_SAMPLE_RATE, 
                AudioFormat.CHANNEL_IN_STEREO, AudioFormat.ENCODING_PCM_16BIT); 
         
        // 创建AudioRecord对象 
        audioRecord = new AudioRecord(AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_INPUT, AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_SAMPLE_RATE, 
                AudioFormat.CHANNEL_IN_STEREO, AudioFormat.ENCODING_PCM_16BIT, bufferSizeInBytes); 
    }
     
     
    class AudioRecordThread implements Runnable { 
        @Override 
        public void run() { 
            writeDateTOFile();//往文件中写入裸数据 
            copyWaveFile(AudioName, NewAudioName);//给裸数据加上头文件 
        
    
   
    /**
     * 这里将数据写入文件,但是并不能播放,因为AudioRecord获得的音频是原始的裸音频,
     * 如果需要播放就必须加入一些格式或者编码的头信息。但是这样的好处就是你可以对音频的 裸数据进行处理,比如你要做一个爱说话的TOM
     * 猫在这里就进行音频的处理,然后重新封装 所以说这样得到的音频比较容易做一些音频的处理。
     */ 
    private void writeDateTOFile() { 
        // new一个byte数组用来存一些字节数据,大小为缓冲区大小 
        byte[] audiodata = new byte[bufferSizeInBytes]; 
        FileOutputStream fos = null
        int readsize = 0
        try
            File file = new File(AudioName); 
            if (file.exists()) { 
                file.delete(); 
            
            fos = new FileOutputStream(file);// 建立一个可存取字节的文件 
        } catch (Exception e) { 
            e.printStackTrace(); 
        
        while (isRecord == true) { 
            readsize = audioRecord.read(audiodata, 0, bufferSizeInBytes); 
            if (AudioRecord.ERROR_INVALID_OPERATION != readsize && fos!=null) { 
                try
                    fos.write(audiodata); 
                } catch (IOException e) { 
                    e.printStackTrace(); 
                
            
        
        try {
            if(fos != null)
                fos.close();// 关闭写入流 
        } catch (IOException e) { 
            e.printStackTrace(); 
        
    
   
    // 这里得到可播放的音频文件 
    private void copyWaveFile(String inFilename, String outFilename) { 
        FileInputStream in = null
        FileOutputStream out = null
        long totalAudioLen = 0
        long totalDataLen = totalAudioLen + 36
        long longSampleRate = AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_SAMPLE_RATE; 
        int channels = 2
        long byteRate = 16 * AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_SAMPLE_RATE * channels / 8
        byte[] data = new byte[bufferSizeInBytes]; 
        try
            in = new FileInputStream(inFilename); 
            out = new FileOutputStream(outFilename); 
            totalAudioLen = in.getChannel().size(); 
            totalDataLen = totalAudioLen + 36
            WriteWaveFileHeader(out, totalAudioLen, totalDataLen, 
                    longSampleRate, channels, byteRate); 
            while (in.read(data) != -1) { 
                out.write(data); 
            
            in.close(); 
            out.close(); 
        } catch (FileNotFoundException e) { 
            e.printStackTrace(); 
        } catch (IOException e) { 
            e.printStackTrace(); 
        
    
   
    /**
     * 这里提供一个头信息。插入这些信息就可以得到可以播放的文件。
     * 为我为啥插入这44个字节,这个还真没深入研究,不过你随便打开一个wav
     * 音频的文件,可以发现前面的头文件可以说基本一样哦。每种格式的文件都有
     * 自己特有的头文件。
     */ 
    private void WriteWaveFileHeader(FileOutputStream out, long totalAudioLen, 
            long totalDataLen, long longSampleRate, int channels, long byteRate) 
            throws IOException { 
        byte[] header = new byte[44]; 
        header[0] = 'R'; // RIFF/WAVE header 
        header[1] = 'I'
        header[2] = 'F'
        header[3] = 'F'
        header[4] = (byte) (totalDataLen & 0xff); 
        header[5] = (byte) ((totalDataLen >> 8) & 0xff); 
        header[6] = (byte) ((totalDataLen >> 16) & 0xff); 
        header[7] = (byte) ((totalDataLen >> 24) & 0xff); 
        header[8] = 'W'
        header[9] = 'A'
        header[10] = 'V'
        header[11] = 'E'
        header[12] = 'f'; // 'fmt ' chunk 
        header[13] = 'm'
        header[14] = 't'
        header[15] = ' '
        header[16] = 16; // 4 bytes: size of 'fmt ' chunk 
        header[17] = 0
        header[18] = 0
        header[19] = 0
        header[20] = 1; // format = 1 
        header[21] = 0
        header[22] = (byte) channels; 
        header[23] = 0
        header[24] = (byte) (longSampleRate & 0xff); 
        header[25] = (byte) ((longSampleRate >> 8) & 0xff); 
        header[26] = (byte) ((longSampleRate >> 16) & 0xff); 
        header[27] = (byte) ((longSampleRate >> 24) & 0xff); 
        header[28] = (byte) (byteRate & 0xff); 
        header[29] = (byte) ((byteRate >> 8) & 0xff); 
        header[30] = (byte) ((byteRate >> 16) & 0xff); 
        header[31] = (byte) ((byteRate >> 24) & 0xff); 
        header[32] = (byte) (2 * 16 / 8); // block align 
        header[33] = 0
        header[34] = 16; // bits per sample 
        header[35] = 0
        header[36] = 'd'
        header[37] = 'a'
        header[38] = 't'
        header[39] = 'a'
        header[40] = (byte) (totalAudioLen & 0xff); 
        header[41] = (byte) ((totalAudioLen >> 8) & 0xff); 
        header[42] = (byte) ((totalAudioLen >> 16) & 0xff); 
        header[43] = (byte) ((totalAudioLen >> 24) & 0xff); 
        out.write(header, 0, 44); 
    
}

 

2、MediaRecorder录音,输出amr格式音频

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package com.example.audiorecordtest;
 
import java.io.File;
import java.io.IOException;
 
import android.media.MediaRecorder;
 
public class MediaRecordFunc { 
    private boolean isRecord = false;
     
    private MediaRecorder mMediaRecorder;
    private MediaRecordFunc(){
    }
     
    private static MediaRecordFunc mInstance;
    public synchronized static MediaRecordFunc getInstance(){
        if(mInstance == null)
            mInstance = new MediaRecordFunc();
        return mInstance;
    }
     
    public int startRecordAndFile(){
        //判断是否有外部存储设备sdcard
        if(AudioFileFunc.isSdcardExit())
        {
            if(isRecord)
            {
                return ErrorCode.E_STATE_RECODING;
            }
            else
            {
                if(mMediaRecorder == null)
                    createMediaRecord();
                 
                try{
                    mMediaRecorder.prepare();
                    mMediaRecorder.start();
                    // 让录制状态为true 
                    isRecord = true;
                    return ErrorCode.SUCCESS;
                }catch(IOException ex){
                    ex.printStackTrace();
                    return ErrorCode.E_UNKOWN;
                }
            }
             
        }      
        else
        {
            return ErrorCode.E_NOSDCARD;           
        }      
    }
     
     
    public void stopRecordAndFile(){
         close();
    }
     
    public long getRecordFileSize(){
        return AudioFileFunc.getFileSize(AudioFileFunc.getAMRFilePath());
    }
     
     
    private void createMediaRecord(){
         /* ①Initial:实例化MediaRecorder对象 */
        mMediaRecorder = new MediaRecorder();
         
        /* setAudioSource/setVedioSource*/
        mMediaRecorder.setAudioSource(AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_INPUT);//设置麦克风
         
        /* 设置输出文件的格式:THREE_GPP/MPEG-4/RAW_AMR/Default
         * THREE_GPP(3gp格式,H263视频/ARM音频编码)、MPEG-4、RAW_AMR(只支持音频且音频编码要求为AMR_NB)
         */
         mMediaRecorder.setOutputFormat(MediaRecorder.OutputFormat.DEFAULT);
          
         /* 设置音频文件的编码:AAC/AMR_NB/AMR_MB/Default */
         mMediaRecorder.setAudioEncoder(MediaRecorder.AudioEncoder.DEFAULT);
          
         /* 设置输出文件的路径 */
         File file = new File(AudioFileFunc.getAMRFilePath());
         if (file.exists()) { 
             file.delete(); 
         }
         mMediaRecorder.setOutputFile(AudioFileFunc.getAMRFilePath());
    }
     
     
    private void close(){
        if (mMediaRecorder != null) { 
            System.out.println("stopRecord"); 
            isRecord = false;
            mMediaRecorder.stop(); 
            mMediaRecorder.release(); 
            mMediaRecorder = null;
        
    }
}
1
  

3、其他文件

AudioFileFunc.java

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package com.example.audiorecordtest;
 
import java.io.File;
 
import android.media.MediaRecorder;
import android.os.Environment;
 
public class AudioFileFunc {
    //音频输入-麦克风
    public final static int AUDIO_INPUT = MediaRecorder.AudioSource.MIC;
     
    //采用频率
    //44100是目前的标准,但是某些设备仍然支持22050,16000,11025
    public final static int AUDIO_SAMPLE_RATE = 44100//44.1KHz,普遍使用的频率  
    //录音输出文件
    private final static String AUDIO_RAW_FILENAME = "RawAudio.raw";
    private final static String AUDIO_WAV_FILENAME = "FinalAudio.wav";
    public final static String AUDIO_AMR_FILENAME = "FinalAudio.amr";
     
    /**
     * 判断是否有外部存储设备sdcard
     * @return true | false
     */
    public static boolean isSdcardExit(){      
        if (Environment.getExternalStorageState().equals(android.os.Environment.MEDIA_MOUNTED))
            return true;
        else
            return false;
    }
         
    /**
     * 获取麦克风输入的原始音频流文件路径
     * @return
     */
    public static String getRawFilePath(){
        String mAudioRawPath = "";
        if(isSdcardExit()){
            String fileBasePath = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory().getAbsolutePath();
            mAudioRawPath = fileBasePath+"/"+AUDIO_RAW_FILENAME;
        }  
         
        return mAudioRawPath;
    }
     
    /**
     * 获取编码后的WAV格式音频文件路径
     * @return
     */
    public static String getWavFilePath(){
        String mAudioWavPath = "";
        if(isSdcardExit()){
            String fileBasePath = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory().getAbsolutePath();
            mAudioWavPath = fileBasePath+"/"+AUDIO_WAV_FILENAME;
        }
        return mAudioWavPath;
    }
     
     
    /**
     * 获取编码后的AMR格式音频文件路径
     * @return
     */
    public static String getAMRFilePath(){
        String mAudioAMRPath = "";
        if(isSdcardExit()){
            String fileBasePath = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory().getAbsolutePath();
            mAudioAMRPath = fileBasePath+"/"+AUDIO_AMR_FILENAME;
        }
        return mAudioAMRPath;
    }  
     
     
    /**
     * 获取文件大小
     * @param path,文件的绝对路径
     * @return
     */
    public static long getFileSize(String path){
        File mFile = new File(path);
        if(!mFile.exists())
            return -1;
        return mFile.length();
    }
 
}

 

4、其他文件

ErrorCode.java

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package com.example.audiorecordtest;
 
import android.content.Context;
import android.content.res.Resources.NotFoundException;
 
public class ErrorCode {
    public final static int SUCCESS = 1000;
    public final static int E_NOSDCARD = 1001;
    public final static int E_STATE_RECODING = 1002;
    public final static int E_UNKOWN = 1003;
     
     
    public static String getErrorInfo(Context vContext, int vType) throws NotFoundException
    {
        switch(vType)
        {
        case SUCCESS:
            return "success";
        case E_NOSDCARD:
            return vContext.getResources().getString(R.string.error_no_sdcard);
        case E_STATE_RECODING:
            return vContext.getResources().getString(R.string.error_state_record); 
        case E_UNKOWN:
        default:
            return vContext.getResources().getString(R.string.error_unknown);          
             
        }
    }
 
}

 

5、string.xml

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>
 
    <string name="app_name">AudioRecordTest</string>
    <string name="hello_world">测试AudioRecord,实现录音功能</string>
    <string name="menu_settings">Settings</string>
    <string name="view_record_wav">录音WAV文件</string>
    <string name="view_record_amr">录音AMR文件</string>
    <string name="view_stop">停止录音</string>
     
    <string name="error_no_sdcard">没有SD卡,无法存储录音数据</string>
    <string name="error_state_record">正在录音中,请先停止录音</string>
    <string name="error_unknown">无法识别的错误</string>
 
</resources>

 

6、主程序MainActivity

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package com.example.audiorecordtest;
 
import android.app.Activity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.Handler;
import android.os.Message;
import android.util.Log;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.TextView;
 
public class MainActivity extends Activity {
    private final static int FLAG_WAV = 0;
    private final static int FLAG_AMR = 1;
    private int mState = -1;    //-1:没再录制,0:录制wav,1:录制amr
    private Button btn_record_wav;
    private Button btn_record_amr;
    private Button btn_stop;
    private TextView txt;
    private UIHandler uiHandler;
    private UIThread uiThread;
 
    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);
        findViewByIds();
        setListeners();
        init();
    }
 
    @Override
    public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
        // Inflate the menu; this adds items to the action bar if it is present.
        getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.activity_main, menu);
        return true;
    }
    private void findViewByIds(){
        btn_record_wav = (Button)this.findViewById(R.id.btn_record_wav);
        btn_record_amr = (Button)this.findViewById(R.id.btn_record_amr);
        btn_stop = (Button)this.findViewById(R.id.btn_stop);
        txt = (TextView)this.findViewById(R.id.text);
    }
    private void setListeners(){
        btn_record_wav.setOnClickListener(btn_record_wav_clickListener);
        btn_record_amr.setOnClickListener(btn_record_amr_clickListener);
        btn_stop.setOnClickListener(btn_stop_clickListener);
    }
    private void init(){
        uiHandler = new UIHandler();       
    }
    private Button.OnClickListener btn_record_wav_clickListener = new Button.OnClickListener(){
        public void onClick(View v){
            record(FLAG_WAV);
        }
    };
    private Button.OnClickListener btn_record_amr_clickListener = new Button.OnClickListener(){
        public void onClick(View v){
            record(FLAG_AMR);
        }
    };
    private Button.OnClickListener btn_stop_clickListener = new Button.OnClickListener(){
        public void onClick(View v){
            stop();    
        }
    };
    /**
     * 开始录音
     * @param mFlag,0:录制wav格式,1:录音amr格式
     */
    private void record(int mFlag){
        if(mState != -1){
            Message msg = new Message();
            Bundle b = new Bundle();// 存放数据
            b.putInt("cmd",CMD_RECORDFAIL);
            b.putInt("msg", ErrorCode.E_STATE_RECODING);
            msg.setData(b);
 
            uiHandler.sendMessage(msg); // 向Handler发送消息,更新UI
            return;
        }
        int mResult = -1;
        switch(mFlag){       
        case FLAG_WAV:
            AudioRecordFunc mRecord_1 = AudioRecordFunc.getInstance();
            mResult = mRecord_1.startRecordAndFile();           
            break;
        case FLAG_AMR:
            MediaRecordFunc mRecord_2 = MediaRecordFunc.getInstance();
            mResult = mRecord_2.startRecordAndFile();
            break;
        }
        if(mResult == ErrorCode.SUCCESS){
            uiThread = new UIThread();
            new Thread(uiThread).start();
            mState = mFlag;
        }else{
            Message msg = new Message();
            Bundle b = new Bundle();// 存放数据
            b.putInt("cmd",CMD_RECORDFAIL);
            b.putInt("msg", mResult);
            msg.setData(b);
 
            uiHandler.sendMessage(msg); // 向Handler发送消息,更新UI
        }
    }
    /**
     * 停止录音
     */
    private void stop(){
        if(mState != -1){
            switch(mState){
            case FLAG_WAV:
                AudioRecordFunc mRecord_1 = AudioRecordFunc.getInstance();
                mRecord_1.stopRecordAndFile();
                break;
            case FLAG_AMR:
                MediaRecordFunc mRecord_2 = MediaRecordFunc.getInstance();
                mRecord_2.stopRecordAndFile();
                break;
            }           
            if(uiThread != null){
                uiThread.stopThread();
            }
            if(uiHandler != null)
                uiHandler.removeCallbacks(uiThread);
            Message msg = new Message();
            Bundle b = new Bundle();// 存放数据
            b.putInt("cmd",CMD_STOP);
            b.putInt("msg", mState);
            msg.setData(b);
            uiHandler.sendMessageDelayed(msg,1000); // 向Handler发送消息,更新UI
            mState = -1;
        }
    }   
    private final static int CMD_RECORDING_TIME = 2000;
    private final static int CMD_RECORDFAIL = 2001;
    private final static int CMD_STOP = 2002;
    class UIHandler extends Handler{
        public UIHandler() {
        }
        @Override
        public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
            // TODO Auto-generated method stub
            Log.d("MyHandler", "handleMessage......");
            super.handleMessage(msg);
            Bundle b = msg.getData();
            int vCmd = b.getInt("cmd");
            switch(vCmd)
            {
            case CMD_RECORDING_TIME:
                int vTime = b.getInt("msg");
                MainActivity.this.txt.setText("正在录音中,已录制:"+vTime+" s");
                break;
            case CMD_RECORDFAIL:
                int vErrorCode = b.getInt("msg");
                String vMsg = ErrorCode.getErrorInfo(MainActivity.this, vErrorCode);
                MainActivity.this.txt.setText("录音失败:"+vMsg);
                break;
            case CMD_STOP:               
                int vFileType = b.getInt("msg");
                switch(vFileType){
                case FLAG_WAV:
                    AudioRecordFunc mRecord_1 = AudioRecordFunc.getInstance();
                    long mSize = mRecord_1.getRecordFileSize();
                    MainActivity.this.txt.setText("录音已停止.录音文件:"+AudioFileFunc.getWavFilePath()+"\n文件大小:"+mSize);
                    break;
                case FLAG_AMR:                   
                    MediaRecordFunc mRecord_2 = MediaRecordFunc.getInstance();
                    mSize = mRecord_2.getRecordFileSize();
                    MainActivity.this.txt.setText("录音已停止.录音文件:"+AudioFileFunc.getAMRFilePath()+"\n文件大小:"+mSize);
                    break;
                }
                break;
            default:
                break;
            }
        }
    };
    class UIThread implements Runnable {       
        int mTimeMill = 0;
        boolean vRun = true;
        public void stopThread(){
            vRun = false;
        }
        public void run() {
            while(vRun){
                try {
                    Thread.sleep(1000);
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                    // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
                mTimeMill ++;
                Log.d("thread", "mThread........"+mTimeMill);
                Message msg = new Message();
                Bundle b = new Bundle();// 存放数据
                b.putInt("cmd",CMD_RECORDING_TIME);
                b.putInt("msg", mTimeMill);
                msg.setData(b);
 
                MainActivity.this.uiHandler.sendMessage(msg); // 向Handler发送消息,更新UI
            }
 
        }
    }
 
}


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